applesoft basic manual

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The PR# statement redirects output to an expansion card, and IN# redirects input from an expansion card. The programmer may designate variables as integer by following them with a percent sign, in which case they use two bytes and are limited to a range of -32768 to 32767; however BASIC internally converts them back to floating point, while each percent sign also takes an additional byte of program code, so in practice this feature is only useful for reducing the memory usage of large array variables. LIST adds spaces when displaying code for the sake of readability. APPLESOFT II BASIC is APPLE’s very much extended BASIC language. Apple® computer. The default prompt for INPUT is a question mark. Applesoft BASIC was supplied by Microsoft and its name is derived from the names of both Apple and Microsoft. The entire Applesoft BASIC® and Integer BASIC® vocabularies are included, along with all the DOS commands. Since variable lookup is often faster than this conversion, it can be faster to store numeric constants used inside loops in variables before the loop is entered. } Apple® computer. letter-spacing: normal; The Applesoft license also saved Microsoft from near-bankruptcy when they licensed BASIC to Commodore for the PET in an agreement that proved unexpectedly costly for them. Applesoft BASIC Programmer's Reference Manual $15 - SOLD. For example, "LOW" and "LOSS" are treated as the same variable, and attempting to assign a value to "LOSS" overwrites any value assigned to "LOW". Comments. Applesoft lacks several commands and functions common to most of the non-6502 Microsoft BASIC interpreters, such as: Applesoft does not have commands for file or disk handling, other than to save and load programs via cassette tape. A line typed without a line number is executed immediately; those lines typed with a line number are saved for … These are two features that call low-level machine-language routines stored in memory, which is useful for routines that need to be fast or require direct access to arbitrary functions or data in memory. BASIC has manual, since APPLE provides a separate manual (the APPLE.!!. Its argument is not for passing a numerical value to the machine-language routine, but is instead the call-address of the routine itself; there is no "hook" to pre-define the address. Since LIST adds a space before and after every tokenized keyword, it often produces two spaces in a row where one would suffice for readability. The original Applesoft, stored in RAM as documented in its Reference Manual of November 1977, has smaller interpreter code than the later Applesoft II, occupying 8½ kb of memory, instead of the 10 kb used by the later Applesoft II. Language types. Wozniak originally referred to his Integer BASIC as "Game BASIC" (having written it so he could implement a Breakout clone for his new computer). Statements and Lines. #NewsItem { PR#6 causes Applesoft to boot the disk drives (although the Disk II controller can be in any slot, it is usually in slot 6). Some programs have the subroutines at the top to reduce the time for calling them. border:none; The USR() function is also defined differently, serving as a stand-in for the absent CALL command. background-color: ; text-decoration: underline; } Here's a brief list of Applesoft, Integer Basic, DOS 3.3, and ProDOS commands with descriptions. font-weight: bold; PR#0 restores output to the 40 column screen and IN#0 to the keyboard. RND with any positive value generates the next number in the sequence, not dependent on the actual value given. BASIC. prompt and displayed a Microsoft copyright notice. The computer locks-up if there is no card present in the slot. It is also referred to as FP BASIC (from "floating point") because of the Apple DOS command used to invoke it, instead of INT for Integer BASIC. background-color: ; … Computers in other domains. color: ; It is not a self-teaching manual, since APPLE provides a separate manual (the APPLE II BASIC Programming Manual) which will help you learn to program even if you have never touched a computer before. clear:both; Rather, string is converted whenever the line is executed. Steve Wozniak had never added floating point capabilities to Integer BASIC as he did not consider them necessary for gaming and educational software, the two primary tasks he envisioned for the Apple II. RND with a negative number will jump to a point in the sequence determined by the particular negative number used. Coleco claimed that its Adam home computer's SmartBASIC was source-code compatible with Applesoft. Applesoft BASIC includes a special DATA command which lets you specify numeric or string information the program can read. #NewsOverview, #NewsDescription { Apple employees, including Randy Wigginton, adapted Microsoft's interpreter for the Apple II and added several features. text-decoration: none; padding: 3px 10px 5px 3px; where x is the slot number containing the printer port card. No mention is made of any code to calculate the value returned by the function itself; the function is always shown being assigned to "dummy" variables, which, without action to set a value by user-code, just receive a meaningless value handed back to them. color: ; Making things more problematic was that the rival Commodore PET personal computer had a floating point-capable BASIC interpreter from the beginning. } Through several early models of the Apple II, Applesoft BASIC did not support the use of lowercase letters in programs, except in strings. 10 PR#x:PRINT"Hello!") Skip to content. The slot number of the card is specified after the PR# or IN# within the statement. The USR() function takes one numerical argument, and can be programmed to derive and return a calculated function value, to be used in a numerical expression. display:block; ♥ indicates an original A2OL high-definition PDF.♥ A Touch of Applesoft BASIC           ♥ Apple II BASIC Programming Reference Manual, ♥ Apple Monitors PeeledApplesoft BASIC Language Reference Manual (1977)♥ Applesoft II BASIC Programming Reference Manual♥ AppleSoft BASIC Quick Reference Guide (Trifold)Applesoft Sampler for IIc♥ Applesoft Toolkit♥ Applesoft TutorialApplesoft Tutorial Errata                   ♥ Compute's First Book of Apple                  ♥ Hands On Applesoft                  ♥ Preliminary Apple BASIC User's Manual 1976. Applied computing. Expressions are parsed with a standard recursive descent parser. Only the first two letters of variables names are significant. color: ; Additional new graphics modes on the Apple IIgs are likewise not supported. [6] Microsoft licensed a BASIC compatible with Applesoft to VTech for its Laser 128 clone.[7]. January 5, 2020. by admin. #NewsOverview a:hover { All command names are of the form PLTx such that GR, COLOR=, PLOT, HLIN and VLIN are called PLTG, PLTC, PLTP, PLTH, and PLTV, respectively. Diagonals and curves are not supported, although shapes can be drawn rotated to various angles, so that lines ostensibly defined as horizontal or vertical will appear diagonal. admin April 26, 2020. All of several examples in the manual use the function only to access "system monitor ROM" routines, or short user-routines to manipulate the ROM routines. #NewsThumb img { As Wozniak—the only person who understood Integer BASIC well enough to add floating point features—was busy with the Disk II drive and controller and with Apple DOS, Apple turned to Microsoft. display:block; Links. } January 6, 2020 January 6, 2020 admin admin 0 Comments. [4] Applesoft was designed to be backwards-compatible with Integer BASIC and uses the core of Microsoft's 6502 BASIC implementation, which includes using the GET command for detecting key presses and not requiring any spaces on program lines. This mode essentially duplicates the resolution of the original hires mode, but including all 16 colors of the lores palette. #NewsThumb { The ? The entries are presented. color: ; The first version of Applesoft was released in 1977 on cassette tape and lacked proper support for high-resolution graphics. in entered programs to the same token as "PRINT" (thus no memory is actually saved by using "? Applesoft BASIC programmer's reference manual. #NewsTitle a:link h1, #NewsTitle a:visited h1 { Applesoft is similar to Commodore's BASIC 2.0 aside from features inherited from Integer BASIC. font-weight: bold; Consequently, it lacks a number of command features developed for the later, mainstream version: The entire Applesoft BASIC® and Integer BASIC® vocabularies are included, along with all the DOS commands. It came out in 1985. If they are given values outside that range, an error results. Even accessed ROM routines that return values (in examples, those that provide the service of PDL() and SCRN() functions) merely have their values stored, by user-routines, in locations that are separately PEEKed in a subsequent statement. 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