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July 24, 2020

Greenhouse gas intensity is a ratio between greenhouse gas emissions and another metric, e.g., gross domestic product (GDP) or energy use. Both CO2 and CH4 vary between glacial and interglacial phases, and concentrations of these gases correlate strongly with temperature. The peak of the thermal IR emission from Earth's surface is very close to a strong vibrational absorption band of CO2 (wavelength 15 microns, or wavenumber 667 cm−1). [132] Calculations based on MER show large differences in intensities between developed and developing countries, whereas calculations based on PPP show smaller differences. The terms "carbon intensity" and "emissions intensity" are also sometimes used. ), The average residence time of a water molecule in the atmosphere is only about nine days, compared to years or centuries for other greenhouse gases such as CH4 and CO2. Earlier still, a 200-million year period of intermittent, widespread glaciation extending close to the equator (Snowball Earth) appears to have been ended suddenly, about 550 Ma, by a colossal volcanic outgassing that raised the CO2 concentration of the atmosphere abruptly to 12%, about 350 times modern levels, causing extreme greenhouse conditions and carbonate deposition as limestone at the rate of about 1 mm per day. Here, we review the past literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO 2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial results from a model intercomparison project on this topic. D Choosing between base years of 1750, 1900, 1950, and 1990 has a significant effect for most countries. and deposition of X [98] In comparison, methane has not increased appreciably, and N2O by 0.25% y−1. Because water vapor is a greenhouse gas, this results in further warming and so is a "positive feedback" that amplifies the original warming. Greenhouse gases are those that absorb and emit infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth. [115], Plastic is produced mainly from fossil fuels. In recent years, attention to adaptation needs within the sanitation sector is just beginning to gain momentum.[129]. Average carbon emissions within the haulage industry are falling—in the thirty-year period from 1977 to 2007, the carbon emissions associated with a 200-mile journey fell by 21 percent; NOx emissions are also down 87 percent, whereas journey times have fallen by around a third. [140]:15 Overall, developed countries accounted for 83.8% of industrial CO2 emissions over this time period, and 67.8% of total CO2 emissions. As we keep emitting, it keeps piling up. [102], Although CFCs are greenhouse gases, they are regulated by the Montreal Protocol, which was motivated by CFCs' contribution to ozone depletion rather than by their contribution to global warming. For example, methane is. China was responsible for most of global growth in emissions during this period. Aside from water vapor, which has a residence time of about nine days,[32] major greenhouse gases are well mixed and take many years to leave the atmosphere. [111] Although much less polluting than coal plants, natural gas-fired power plants are also major emitters. [21][22] In addition, some gases, such as methane, are known to have large indirect effects that are still being quantified.[31]. However, when they leave the atmosphere, they're simply swapping places with carbon dioxide in the ocean. The first 30 ppm increase took place in about 200 years, from the start of the Industrial Revolution to 1958; however the next 90 ppm increase took place within 56 years, from 1958 to 2014. "Measuring urban greenhouse gas emissions: The challenge of comparability. (all in kg/s): ", "Extension and integration of atmospheric carbon dioxide data into a globally consistent measurement record", "The greenhouse effect and climate change", "Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990–2010", "Climate Change Indicators in the United States", "Climate Change 2001: Working Group I: The Scientific Basis: figure 6-6", "The present carbon cycle – Climate Change", "Global and regional drivers of accelerating, "Environmental issues: essential primary sources", "Climate change: global deal reached to limit use of hydrofluorocarbons", "Climate change: 'Monumental' deal to cut HFCs, fastest growing greenhouse gases", "Nations, Fighting Powerful Refrigerant That Warms Planet, Reach Landmark Deal", "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector", "March: Tracking the decoupling of electricity demand and associated CO2 emissions", "We have too many fossil-fuel power plants to meet climate goals", "Environmental Impacts of Tourism – Global Level", "A Cheaper and More Efficient Freight Industry In and Out of the UK", "What Is the Carbon Footprint of a Plastic Bottle? chemical loss of X 96). One study using evidence from stomata of fossilized leaves suggests greater variability, with carbon dioxide mole fractions above 300 ppm during the period seven to ten thousand years ago,[76] though others have argued that these findings more likely reflect calibration or contamination problems rather than actual CO2 variability. [70] Localised plummeting emissions associated with the collapse of the Soviet Union have been followed by slow emissions growth in this region due to more efficient energy use, made necessary by the increasing proportion of it that is exported. 106–07). Geochemist Ralph Keeling runs the Scripps Oceanography program at Mauna Loa. Below are the CO2 emission values that fell at the 50th percentile of all studies surveyed.[170]. Its uncertainty is very low."[44]. The size of the indirect effect can depend strongly on where and when the gas is emitted. Emissions from the sanitation and wastewater sector have been focused mainly on treatment systems, particularly treatment plants, and this accounts for the bulk of the carbon footprint for the sector. In the industrial era, human activities have added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, mainly through the burning of fossil fuels and clearing of forests.[51][52]. 93). offset these positive feedbacks, stabilizing the global temperature at a new equilibrium and preventing the loss of Earth's water through a Venus-like runaway greenhouse effect. Major developed economies were found to be typically net importers of embodied carbon emissions—with UK consumption emissions 34% higher than production emissions, and Germany (29%), Japan (19%) and the US (13%) also significant net importers of embodied emissions.[153]. Water vapor accounts for the largest percentage of the greenhouse effect, between 36% and 66% for clear sky conditions and between 66% and 85% when including clouds. [19], The major non-gas contributor to Earth's greenhouse effect, clouds, also absorb and emit infrared radiation and thus have an effect on greenhouse gas radiative properties. [163], One liter of gasoline, when used as a fuel, produces 2.32 kg (about 1300 liters or 1.3 cubic meters) of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas. [47] The phasing-out of less active HCFC-compounds will be completed in 2030. If this energy balance is shifted, Earth's surface becomes warmer or cooler, leading to a variety of changes in global climate. The higher ends of the ranges quoted are for each gas alone; the lower ends account for overlaps with the other gases. In order, the most abundant[clarification needed] greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are:[citation needed], Atmospheric concentrations are determined by the balance between sources (emissions of the gas from human activities and natural systems) and sinks (the removal of the gas from the atmosphere by conversion to a different chemical compound or absorption by bodies of water). Since about 1750 human activity has increased the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. e.g., Gupta et al. + For example, the destruction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) in the atmosphere can produce ozone. [138] Emission intensities may be calculated using market exchange rates (MER) or purchasing power parity (PPP) (Banuri et al., 1996, p. [135], Land-use change, e.g., the clearing of forests for agricultural use, can affect the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere by altering how much carbon flows out of the atmosphere into carbon sinks. F Now it’s here. o The models agree that 20–35% of the CO 2 remains in the atmosphere after … Individual carbon dioxide molecules have a short life time of around 5 years in the atmosphere. (2007) assessed the scientific literature on climate change mitigation policy: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, molecules containing two atoms of the same element, infrared radiation in the wavelength range emitted by Earth, first IPCC Scientific Assessment of Climate Change, Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol § Government action and emissions, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions, List of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita, List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions, List of countries by greenhouse gas emissions per capita, climate change scenario § Quantitative emissions projections, Global climate model § Projections of future climate change, Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of energy sources, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, List of international environmental agreements, Top contributors to greenhouse gas emissions, "NASA GISS: Science Briefs: Greenhouse Gases: Refining the Role of Carbon Dioxide", "NASA Science Mission Directorate article on the water cycle", "CO2 in the atmosphere just exceeded 415 parts per million for the first time in human history", "Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide | NOAA", "Frequently asked global change questions", Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, "AR4 SYR Synthesis Report Summary for Policymakers – 2 Causes of change", "Global Methane Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities", "Thai rice farmers step up to tackle carbon footprint", "Earth Will Cross the Climate Danger Threshold by 2036", "Contributions to accelerating atmospheric, "Laboratory Comparison of the Global-Warming Potential of Six Categories of Biomass Cooking Stoves", 10.1175/1520-0477(1997)078<0197:EAGMEB>2.0.CO;2, "The attribution of the present-day total greenhouse effect", "An emissions-based view of climate forcing by methane and tropospheric ozone", "Methane's Impacts on Climate Change May Be Twice Previous Estimates", "Climate Change Indicators: Atmospheric Concentrations of Greenhouse Gases", "Strong atmospheric chemistry feedback to climate warming from Arctic methane emissions", "Frequently Asked Question 10.3: If emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced, how quickly do their concentrations in the atmosphere decrease?

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